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LODGEPOLE PINE

Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

Pine Family [Pinaceae]  

Cones (ripen):
cones8may

Leaves:

category
category8Trees
 
category
category8Coniferous
 
category
category8Evergreen
 
status
statusZalien
 
flower
flower8red
 
petals
petalsZ0
 
stem
stem8round
 
smell
smell8aromatic smell?pleasant
aromatic

22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
Mature tree on edge of mobile sand dunes.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Male flowers, which are right at the tips of the branches.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Ripe male flowers.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Ripe male flowers.


6th May 2011, Whitley Hill, Glossop, Derbys. Photo: © RWD


6th May 2011, Whitley Hill, Glossop, Derbys. Photo: © RWD


6th May 2011, Whitley Hill, Glossop, Derbys. Photo: © RWD
 The red flowers at the very tip are female.


6th May 2011, Whitley Hill, Glossop, Derbys. Photo: © RWD
 Male flowers. The green bits at the top have yet to develop into male cones as those at the bottom.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Ripe male flowers.


6th May 2011, Whitley Hill, Glossop, Derbys. Photo: © RWD
 Each cone scale has a slender sharp tip which easily breaks off the brown sacks containing the pollen with a gently touched to release a cloud of pollen.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 The male flowers are at first light green.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Then become yellow with dark red spots. Each individual one is a male cone.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Close up.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
The needle leaves are narrow, linear, often twisted, and in pairs. The cones green at first with a slender sharp tip which easily breaks off.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 A young cone, with sharp points on each scale.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Mature cone (bottom left), with sharp points still intact. The leaves are about 7cm long.


22nd May 2010, Sand Dunes, Freshfields, Sefton Coast. Photo: © RWD
 Mature cones.


Easily confused with : several other subspecies of Pinus contorta, namely Shore Pine (Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and Sierra Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana)

Smalls very aromatic with a mixture of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes when the leaves are crushed. The terpenes present in the tree resin belong to three groups of terpenes: those with the camphane or pinene skeletons, those with mono-cyclic or acyclic frames, and those that are sesquiterpenes.

MONOTERPENES

Identified in the resin are: Limonene (2.4%), Sabinene (2.1%), α-phellandrene (0.7%) and the aliphatic hydrocarbon heptane. Further terpenes are produced by the tree in response to attack by insects or pathogens as a defence mechanism.

Limonene is a cyclic monoterpene which has a strong smell of lemons and is indeed contained within lemon peel along with a few other monoterpenes. Limonene is chiral, having two mirror image forms, lemons containing the (+)-limonene (D-limonene) enantiomer which is dextro-rotatory, rotating the plane of polarised light.

α-Pellandrene is a double-bond isomer of β-phellandrene and is also found in Eucalyptus phellandra (which is now called Eucalyptus radiata). It has a peppery-minty smell slightly reminiscent of citrus fruit.

JASMONATE PLANT HORMONES (AUXINS)



Jasmonic Acid, and its metabolites, is a plant hormone and is derived from Linolenic Acid. It plays roles in regulating plant development and growth, including growth inhibition, senescence, tendril coiling (but obviously not in Lodgepole Pines), seed germination, flower development, flower form, flowering time, flower opening, the number of open flowers, and leaf fall. It also has a hand in tuber formation of potatoes, yams and onions.

It also plays a role in the wounding response and systemic acquired resistance. It acts as a defence chemical against insects, interfering with their digestive processes.

Jasmonic Acid can be converted into the ester Methyl Jasmonate within the plant, which plays similar roles in plant defence as Jasmonic Acid. Plants produce both chemicals in response to stress or damage. Methyl Jasmonate also signals to remoter parts of the plant (via propagation through the air) forearming them against similar damage or attack, so that they are prepared. But Methyl Jasmonate is a gas which is not very active in plants, but as a gas is able to waft over to nearby plants whereupon it diffuses into the pores of the leaves of nearby un-damaged plants, where, acted upon by water, it gets converted into the water-soluble Jasmonic Acid. The Jasmonic Acid then attaches itself to specific receptors in cells triggering the leafs defence mechanism.

Methyl Jasmonate can also induce ethylene formation. Ethylene, H2C=CH2, is a gas and plant hormone that enhances the ripening of nearby fruits.

See Fungal Attack and Resistance.

ALKANES

Tetramethylmethane (aka Neopentane or Dimethylpropane) is an alkane hydrocarbon produced within pine cones. It is gaseous and utilised by the trees as a pesticide against rodents, such as squirrels, who are prone to remove and bury the cones. It is also manufactured commercially for use in products to kill rats and fleas. Isomeric with both Pentane and with IsoPentane it is an extremely inflammable gas. However, unlike its isomers, it is a gas at normal temperatures and pressures (NTP) with melting point of about 9C, whereas pentane (b.p. 36C) and isopentane (b.p. 28C) are both liquids. However, Neopentane can liquefy on cold days when the temperature drops below 9C.


  Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia  ⇐ Global Aspect ⇒ Pinaceae  

Distribution
 family8Pine family8Pinaceae

 BSBI maps
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Pinus
(Pine Trees)

LODGEPOLE PINE

Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

Pine Family [Pinaceae]  

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